A Modified 5-SPICE Framework Review on English Language Teachers' and Learners' Perceptions of an Educational Emergency


  • Md. Ziaul Karim
  • Laxman Gnawali
  • Md. Kamrul Hasan


educational emergency; educational technologies; techno-pedagogies; New-Normal education; emergency remote teaching


Covid-19 pandemic caused the biggest global on-site academic lockdown for more than a year, resulting in the largest disruption in the history of education. This review article highlights how tertiary English language education (ELE) in developing countries like Bangladesh continued during the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic (from March 2020 onwards) - the 1st time long-lasting educational emergency that crippled the world. Considering this context, twenty (20) empirical papers on tertiary ELE from the COVID outbreak in 2020 to 2023 were reviewed through a Modified 5-SPICE framework where SPICE stands for Setting, Participants, Investigation type, Content and Ethical considerations applied by the reviewed articles. The thematic data analysis based on the Modified 5-SPICE framework applied Wellington’s (2015, as cited in Cohen et al., 2018) seven data analysis stages. The findings disclosed that the COVID-19 educational emergency utilized some existing educational technologies (EdTechs) and made a forced entry of some new technologies. ELE teachers and students had mixed feelings as they faced initial challenges which they gradually tried to overcome. This paper sheds light on their perspectives and complexities in addition to the future possibilities of emergency EdTechs at the tertiary ELE level. The findings are expected to assist pedagogues, policymakers, learners and other stakeholders to recognize the importance of the growing New Normal EdTechs to form a better Next Normal ELT pedagogy.



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