Aligning Preservice Teachers’ Experiences for ICT Integration in Education in the School of Education at the University of Technology in South Africa


  • Sibongile Ruth Ngcapu
  • Sibongile Simelane-Mnisi
  • Andile Mji


Pre-service teachers’ experiences, teaching practices, ICT integration, coursework and fieldwork., School of education


The poor correlation between fieldwork and the preservice teachers' coursework for technology integration has been observed since the introduction of technology as a teaching and learning tool in education. The quantity and quality of the preservice technological experiences as part of the teacher education program have a significant impact on how new teachers use technology. This paper highlights how the educational programs and the fieldwork experiences of the preservice teachers should be aligned to integrate technology in teaching and learning. To gain insight into the current practices in the School of Education at the University of Technology in South Africa, the embedded mixed method approach, was utilised. For quantitative data, a TPACK questionnaire was distributed to 480 preservice teachers. Observation, interviews, an open-ended questionnaire and document analysis were employed for qualitative data. To analyse quantitative and qualitative data, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Atlas.ti were employed, respectively. The findings revealed a lack of synergy between the preservice teachers’ coursework and the fieldwork for technology integration in education. It was recommended that for the preservice teachers to thrive in integrating technology in teaching practicals and in their future workplaces, the School of Education should ensure the development of programs that involve coursework and fieldwork in the school context.


Admiraal, W., van Vugt, F., Kranenburg, F., Koster, B., Smit, B., Weijers, S., & Lockhorst, D. (2017). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into K–12 instruction: evaluation of a technology-infused approach. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(1), 105-120.

Akayoglu, S., Satar, H. M., Dikilitas, K., Cirit, N. C., & Korkmazgil, S. (2020). Digital literacy practices of Turkish pre-service EFL teachers. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36(1), 85-97.

Alayyar, G., & Fisser, P. (2019). Human and blended support to assist learning about ICT integration in (pre-service) teacher design teams. Collaborative curriculum design for sustainable innovation and teacher learning, 191-204.

Albrahim, F. A. (2020). Online teaching skills and competencies. Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 19(1), 9-20.

Alexander, R. (2020). A dialogic teaching companion. Routledge.

Bladergroen, M. C., & Chigona, W. (2019). Managing information and communication technology in South African classrooms: Pre-service teachers’ experiences. Africa Education Review, 16(3), 22-35..

Brianza, E., Schmid, M., Tondeur, J., & Petko, D. (2023). The digital silver lining of the pandemic: The impact on preservice teachers’ technological knowledge and beliefs. Education and Information Technologies, 1-26.

Boz, Y., & Cetin-Dindar, A. (2023). Teaching concerns, self-efficacy beliefs and constructivist learning environment of pre-service science teachers: a modelling study. European Journal of Teacher Education, 46(2), 274-292.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Connolly, T. M., & Begg, C. E. (2006). A constructivist-based approach to teaching database analysis and design. Journal of Information Systems Education, 17(1), 43.

Cheung, S. K., Kwok, L. F., Phusavat, K., & Yang, H. H. (2021). Shaping the future learning environments with smart elements: challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18, 1-9.

Ellis, N. J., Alonzo, D., & Nguyen, H. T. M. (2020). Elements of a quality pre-service teacher mentor: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 92, 103072.

Friese, S. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis with Atlas.ti. 2. ed. London: Sage.

Fehrman, S., & Watson, S. L. (2021). A systematic review of asynchronous online discussions in online higher education. American Journal of Distance Education, 35(3), 200-213.

Gudmundsdottir, G. B., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Newly qualified teachers’ professional digital competence: implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 214-231.

Habibi, A., Razak, R. A., Yusop, F. D., Mukminin, A., & Yaqin, L. N. (2020). Factors affecting ICT integration during teaching practices: A multiple case study of three Indonesian universities. Qualitative Report, 25(5).

Habibi, A., Riady, Y., Samed Al-Adwan, A., & Awni Albelbisi, N. (2023). Beliefs and knowledge for pre-service teachers’ technology integration during teaching practice: an extended theory of planned behavior. Computers in the Schools, 40(2), 107-132.

Hämäläinen, P. (2022). Pre-service teachers' perceptions of online teaching and their effects on self-efficacy beliefs.

Hsu, Y. Y., & Lin, C. H. (2020). Evaluating the effectiveness of a preservice teacher technology training module incorporating SQD strategies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), 1-17.

Hu, X., He, W., Chiu, T. K., & Zhao, L. (2023). Using a teacher scheme for educational dialogue analysis to investigate student–student interaction patterns for optimal group activities in an artificial intelligence course. Education and Information Technologies, 28(7), 8789-8813.

Hurrt, J. W., Shen, Y. W., & Cho, M. H. (2020). Impact of intercultural online collaboration project for pre-service teachers. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 29(1), 1-17.

Kent, A. M., & Giles, R. M. (2017). Preservice Teachers' Technology Self-Efficacy. SRATE Journal, 26(1), 9-20.

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.

Kostadinovich, D. D., & Bondareva, Y. V. (2020). Dialogue as a method of modern education. ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????. ?????: ??????????? ?????, (2), 27.

Kuru Gönen, S. ?. (2019). A qualitative study on a situated experience of technology integration: Reflections from pre-service teachers and students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(3), 163-189.

Le, H., Janssen, J., & Wubbels, T. (2018). Collaborative learning practices: teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 48(1), 103-122.

List, A. (2019). Defining digital literacy development: An examination of pre-service teachers’ beliefs. Computers & Education, 138, 146-158.

Manzano-León, A., Camacho-Lazarraga, P., Guerrero, M. A., Guerrero-Puerta, L., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Trigueros, R., & Alias, A. (2021). Between level up and game over: A systematic literature review of gamification in education. Sustainability, 13(4), 2247. https://

Martin, F., Budhrani, K., Kumar, S., & Ritzhaupt, A. (2019a). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Roles and competencies. Online Learning, 23(1), 184–205.

Munna, A. S., & Kalam, M. A. (2021). Teaching and learning process to enhance teaching effectiveness: a literature review. International Journal of Humanities and Innovation (IJHI), 4(1), 1-4.

McGarr, O., & Gallchóir, C. Ó. (2020). Examining supervising field instructors’ reporting and assessment of technology use by pre-service teachers on school placement. Computers & Education, 146, 103753.

Mee Mee, R. W., Shahdan, T. S. T., Ismail, M. R., Ghani, K. A., Pek, L. S., Von, W. Y., ... & Rao, Y. S. (2020). Role of Gamification in Classroom Teaching: Pre-Service Teachers' View. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 9(3), 684-690. doi: 10.11591/ijere. v9i3.20622

Neumann, K. L., Alvarado-Albertorio, F., & Ramírez-Salgado, A. (2021). Aligning with practice: Examining the effects of a practice-based educational technology course on preservice teachers’ potential to teach with technology. TechTrends, 65, 1027-1041.

Ng, D. F. S., & Wong, C. P. (2020). The role of school leadership in Singapore's future?ready school reform. European Journal of Education, 55(2), 183-199.

Oubibi, M., Zhao, W., Wang, Y., Zhou, Y., Jiang, Q., Li, Y., & Qiao, L. (2022). Advances in Research on Technological, Pedagogical, Didactical, and Social Competencies of Preservice TCFL Teachers. Sustainability, 14(4), 2045.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books, New York.

Paparozzi, C. (1998). Implementing constructivism in the middle school classroom. West Virginia University.

Shank, P. (2001). Asynchronous online learning instructor competencies. Learning Peaks. Available at: instrcomp.html

Sherab, K., Tshomo, U., Gyamtsho, D. C., & Thinley, J. (2022). Technological, Pedagogical and Subject Content Knowledge (TPACK) Profile of Final Year Pre-Service Teachers at Paro College of Education, Royal University of Bhutan. BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION.

Temporão, G. P., & Pavani, A. B. (2019). The integration of an institutional repository and a learning management system: a case study. In INTED2019 Proceedings (pp. 3314-3320). IATED.

Tondeur, J. (2018, October). Enhancing future teachers’ competencies for technology integration in education: Turning theory into practice. In Seminar. Net (Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 216-224).

Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2020). Enhancing pre-service teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK): A mixed-method study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(1), 319-343.

Tondeur, J., Van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers & Education,59(1), 134–144.

Tunç-Pekkan, Z., Ölmez, ?. B., & Taylan, R. D. (2023). An Online Laboratory School research on pre-service mathematics teachers’ experiences and mathematics teaching anxiety. Education and Information Technologies, 28(5), 5739-5761.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.). Harvard University Press.

Wetzel, K., Buss, R., Foulger, T. S., & Lindsey, L. (2014). Infusing educational technology in teaching methods courses: Successes and dilemmas. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 30(3), 89-103.