A Systematic Review of Research on Gender Diversity in STEM Education


  • Chuyen Nguyen Thi Hong
  • Huong Le Thi Thu
  • Vinh Nguyen Huy
  • Binh Le Thi


education, gender gap, PRISMA, review, STEM


Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education research has increased worldwide in recent years. Recognition of STEM education's importance in producing highly skilled scientists and technologists and its economic benefits to society are driving this increase. However, STEM labor force gender representation is a persistent issue. A meta-analysis using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol and a thorough literature search assessed STEM gender diversity. A total of 42 STEM education gender diversity research papers were reviewed using PRISMA. These Scopus papers provide a database from 2013 to 2023. The study used text analysis and synthesis to evaluate and highlight the countries, extract key phrases, identify research issues of interest to scholars, and suggest future research directions. The research findings indicate that current publications primarily focus on developing STEM education programs to attract and provide more opportunities for women. Additionally, other research areas of interest include proposing solutions to enhance gender equality in STEM education, women's awareness, and skills in the STEM field. Furthermore,  research gaps have been identified  in course design, learning material development for STEM education, and establishing a direction for implementing STEM education starting from early elementary school, with the optimal period being before grade 3. These findings can help academics explore STEM research ideas in new situations. However, the investigation was limited by using only a Scopus catalog database; disregarding alternative sources may have led to material being omitted.