Challenges in Artificial Intelligence Development in Higher Education in China, India, and Indonesia: International Students’ Perspectives


  • Mustopa Mustopa
  • Nasikhin Nasikhin
  • Rikza Chamami
  • Hamidatun Nihayah
  • Muhammad Romadlon Habibullah
  • Ahmad Manshur


artificial intelligence; China; higher education; India; Indonesia


This research explores the challenges of developing artificial intelligence (AI) at universities in China, India, and Indonesia for teacher education students. A qualitative research method was employed, with data collected through in-depth focus group discussions with 12 doctoral students from the 3 countries in equal proportions. The sample selection was based on the diversity of the participants’ relevant backgrounds, experiences, and understandings. The data collected were analyzed using a thematic approach involving the identification, mapping, and interpretation of themes. The research findings indicate variations in the main challenges in developing AI to improve the quality of teacher education in each country. In Indonesia, infrastructure and Internet access are the main constraints limiting the application of AI technology. Meanwhile, in India, the main concern relates to the lack of human resources skilled in the field of AI, prompting the need for relevant skills development among educators. Conversely, in China, the problem concerns striking a balance between utilizing advanced AI technologies, safeguarding privacy, and developing the capacity to accommodate rapid advances in technology-based education. The findings of this study provide valuable strategic insights, enabling the design of appropriate strategies in each country. The implications of the findings can assist the relevant parties in overcoming specific barriers in the context of each country, supporting innovative developments in technology-based teacher education.


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